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Old Man and the Sea

A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated – The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” Sophie Chen(??? ) Class 201 National Dali Senior High School March. 17, 2007 1/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” I. Introduction The Old Man and the Sea is one of the finest works of literature of the 20th century, and was published in 1952 after the bleakest ten years in Hemingway’s literary career.

It helps the author Ernest Hemingway win a Nobel Prize for literature in 1954. It is the deceivingly simple story of an old Cuban fisherman, named Santiago, who undergoes the most difficult struggle of his life. Despite being a relatively short work, the novella is filled not only with drama but with the parable of one man’s perseverance through the hardest of times. The courage and determination of an old fisherman shines through while trying to catch a fish that will truly test his ability. Far out to the sea, alone in a small boat, he hooks the very fish of his life.

It is a tale of the battle between the fish and the old man for survival ensues, as they push each other to their physical limits, alone with each other in the ocean far away. (1) In the following passagaes, I attempt to illustrate the essay in three parts, which are: Literary Significance and Critisism, Symbolism in the Sea Life, and The Essence of the Book. II. Thesis 1. Literary significance and criticism 2/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” 1. 1 Writing Backround

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois. Hemingway was raised with the conservative Midwestern values of strong religion, hard work, physical fitness and self determination; if one adhered to these parameters, he was taught, and he would be ensured of success in whatever field he chose. As a boy he was taught by his father to hunt and fish along the shores and in the forests surrounding Lake Michigan. (2) As he grew up, he traveled extensively in Europe, including serving in WWI. Due to the impact of WWI, writers’ innermost feelings came across great buffet.

The miserable WWI made people disorient, and the litterateur called the writers born in 1890s as well as Hemingway “The Lost Generation” (3). Their characters show deep disorients and hover to their life, the society, and the world. In 1921 he settled in Paris and began to develop his successful career as a writer. Hemingway’s writing style developed in this time when he worked as a newspaper reporter and correspondent early in his career which is simple and compact, with short sentences and paragraphs lack of verbosity. However, this straightforward style often conveys complex themes. Among his later works, the most outstanding is the short /24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” novella, The Old Man and the Sea (1952), the story of an old fisherman’s journey, his long and lonely struggle with a fish and the sea, and his victory in defeat. 1. 2 Winning the great honor, Nobel Prize in Literature 1954 The Old Man and the Sea led to numerous accolades for Hemingway, including the 1953 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. He also earned the Award of Merit Medal for the Novella from the American Academy of Letters that same year.

Most prestigiously, the Nobel Prize in Literature came in 1954, “For his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style. “(4) 1. 3 Criticisms The Old Man and the Sea served to reinvigorate Hemingway’s literary reputation and prompted a reexamination of his entire body of work. The novella was initially received with much popularity; it restored many readers’ confidence in Hemingway’s capability as an author. Its publisher, Scribner’s, on an early dust jacket, called the novella a “new classic”. (5) /24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” Despite the fact that it was followed by such extravagant acclaim, a school of critics emerged that stated the novella as a disappointing minor work. Notable in this shift from unqualified support is the critic Philip Young. In 1952, just following the novella’s publication, Young provided an admiring review, suggesting that it was the book “in which Hemingway said the finest single thing he ever had to say as well as he could ever hope to say it. Then, in 1966, he jeeringly noted that the “failed novel” too often “went way out. ” These self-contradictory views show that critical reaction ranged from adoration of the book’s mythical, pseudo-religious intonations to flippant dismissal as pure fakery. The latter is founded in the notion that Hemingway, once a devoted student of realism, failed in his depiction of Santiago as a supernatural, clairvoyant impossibility. One of the most celebrated favorable critical readings of the novella came in 1957 with Joseph Waldmeir’s essay entitled “Confiteor Hominem: Ernest Hemingway’s Religion of Man. He says: The Old Man and the Sea are not peculiar to that book among Hemingway’s works, and that Hemingway has finally taken the decisive step in elevating what might be called his philosophy of Manhood to the level of a religion. (6) 5/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” On the other hand, one of the most outspoken critics who has emerged in the camp of dissenting opinion of the work is Robert P.

Weeks. His notorious 1962 piece, “Fakery in The Old Man and the Sea,” presents a series of points that he claims show how the novella is a weak and unexpected divergence from the typical, realistic Hemingway. In juxtaposing this novella against Hemingway’s previous works, he explains that: The difference, however, in the effectiveness with which Hemingway employs this characteristic device in his best work and in The Old Man and the Sea is illuminating.

The work of fiction in which Hemingway devoted the most attention to natural objects, The Old Man and the Sea, is pieced out with an extraordinary quantity of fakery, extraordinary because one would expect to find no inexactness, no romanticizing of natural objects in a writer who loathed W. H. Hudson, could not read Thoreau, deplored Melville’s rhetoric in Moby Dick, and who was himself criticized by other writers, notably Faulkner, for his devotion to the facts and his unwillingness to “invent”. (7) 2. Symbolism in the sea life 2. The soul of the book, Santiago He is an old fisherman in Cuba who, when we meet him at the beginning of the 6/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” book, has not caught anything for eighty-four days. On the eighty-fifth day he goes very far out to sea and hooks a marlin. Santiago endures a great struggle with an uncommonly large and noble marlin only to lose the fish to rapacious sharks on his way back to land. Despite this loss, Santiago ends the novella with his spirit undefeated.

He represents the courage, strength and endurance of the human race. He struggled between love and hate like all men do. However, the thing that truly defeated Santiago was his pride. Santiago also represents humankind. Hemingway compares him to Jesus Christ, a prime example of flawless humanity, on several occasions. The action of Santiaho “picked the mast up and put it on his shoulder and started up the road; sit down five times before he reached his shack”(8) was much like what Jesus did on the journey to his crucifixion carrying the cross.

Later when Santiago sleeps, he “sleeps face down with his arms out straight and the palms of his hands up”(9), which is the position of Christ’s crucifixion. All throughout the book the old man wishes for salt, a staple seasoning in the human diet. He is a fisherman like Christ’s disciples. But from another aspect, we can also say that Santiago stands for Hemingway himself, an Everyman, heroic in the face of human tragedy, or the Oedipal male 7/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” nconscious trying to slay his father, the marlin, in order to sexually possess his mother, the sea. “Everything about him was old except his eyes and they were the same color as the sea and were cheerful and undefeated. “(10) Hemingway wrote of the old man, and which is also a direct portrait of Hemingway himself. 2. 2 Truly company, the boy Manolin Manolin is Santiago’s only friend and companion in this novella. Santiago taught Manolin how to fish since he was a kid, and the boy used to go out to sea with the old man until his parents objected to Santiago’s bad luck.

Despite his parents’ disagreement, Manolin still helps Santiago pull in his boat in the evenings and provides the old man with food and bait when he needs it. The boy symbolizes youth, potency, hope, faith, love, and loyalty. During the struggle on the sea, what would Santiago become if he hasn’t had Manolin as his spirit-lifter? More often than the old man prays to God for help, he recalls memories of Manolin: “If the boy was here he would wet the coils of line, he thought. Yes. If the boy was here. If the boy was here. ”(11) He wishes the boy were there to give him strength in his time of need.

Manolin is the reader’s surrogate in the novella, appreciating Santiago’s heroic spirit and skill despite his outward lack of success. 8/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” 2. 3 Greatest opponent and challenge, the large marlin fish Although it does not speak and we do not have access to its thoughts, the marlin is certainly an important character in this novella. The marlin is the fish Santiago spends the majority of the novella tracking, killing, and attempting to bring to shore.

Santiago struggles hard with it alone in the opening sea for days. The marlin is larger and more spirited than any Santiago has ever seen: “He is a great fish and I must convince him. I must never let him learn his strength nor what he could do if he could do if he made his run. If I were him I would put in everything now and go until something broke. But, thank God, they are not as intelligent as we who kill them; although they are more noble and able. ”(12) Santiago idealizes the marlin, ascribing to it traits of great nobility, a fish to which he must prove his own nobility if he is worthy enough to catch it.

The marlin symbolizes a noble foe for Santiago and religion, the fish has been a symbol of Christianity since its early days, and the sea represents life as it is thought to be where life began, and is a staple in our survival as humans. The marlin swims through the sea as religion weaves through life. (13) Santiago struggles with the fish as humans often do with their faith. Santiago loves the fish as men love their gods, and 9/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” e hates the fish as men sometimes hate their gods. The fish was beautiful and huge and Santiago felt a connection with it, he considered it his brother. “I am not religious,” he said. “But I will say ten Our Fathers and ten Hail Marys that I should catch this fish, and I promise to make a pilgrimage to the Virgin of Cobre if I catch him. That is a promise. ”(14) Hemingway implies that Santiago is not a religious man. But he seems to have some faith as shown by his offers to say his “Hail Marys” if he catches the marlin. He even apologizes to the fish, as a man would apologize to his god, for his pride.

The old man’s pride breaks his heart and he spits it out in the night. The marlin’s death represents Santiago’s greatest victory and the promise of all those intangibles he so desperately hopes for to redeem his individual existence. Yet, like the marlin, Santiago also inevitably loses and becomes the victim. After the mako shark’s attack, Santiago eats the marlin’s flesh to sustain himself, completing the natural cycle in which the great creature passes on something of itself to Santiago. All creatures not only play the role predator and prey, but also nourishing one another.

In my opinion, the marlin can represent the great book Hemingway is trying to write, the threatened father of Santiago’s Oedipus, or merely the dramatic foil to Santiago’s heroism. (15) 10/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” 2. 4 The tolerant sea The sea is central character, and you can even say it is the universe in the novella. Most of the story takes place on the sea, and Santiago is constantly identified with it and its creatures.

His sea-colored eyes reflect both the sea’s tranquility and power, and its inhabitants are his brothers. The sea is an amphibian, kind and pretty but also cruel. This is much related to the marlin which is also an amphibian to Santiago of its identity as a friend and as a foe. In essence, the amphibian is considered as the inconstancy of the nature. Santiago refers to the sea as a woman, and the sea seems to represent the feminine complement to Santiago’s masculinity. (16) It is like a mother who loves and tolerates her own child, healing his pains during the fierce struggle, and leading Santiago back home eventually. . 5 The great baseball player, Joe DiMaggio Although DiMaggio never appears in the novella, he plays a significant role nonetheless. DiMaggio is a famous New York Yankee player, whose career Santiago follows in the newspapers. DiMaggio is a two-time American League Most Valuable Player, and one of the greatest baseball players ever, was plagued by injuries 11/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” throughout the second half of his career.

One of the better known injuries was the bone spur in the heel of his left foot, which limited his abilities in 1946. The next year, however, DiMaggio made a comeback with another MVP season. (17) DiMaggio plays the role of the old man’s idol and faith in the story. When one feels lonely or helpless, one needs someone or something to place their spirit. During the long struggle on the sea, Santiago worships him as a model of strength and commitment, and his thoughts turn toward DiMaggio whenever he needs to reassure himself of his own strength.

He stands for the power to overcome whatever difficulties life throws at you and shows that it is possible to live through the hard times. Santiago regards the Great DiMaggio as an ultimate symbol of resilience and courage. 2. 6 Inside Santiago’s dream, the lions on the beach Hemingway uses the lions on the beach as a metaphor to depict the participants in life. Santiago was a sailor in his youth, and traveled to Africa, where he saw young lions playing on the beach. “When I was your age I was before the mast on a square-rigged ship and that ship ran to Africa and I have seen lions on the beaches in 12/24

PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” the evening. ”(18) He told Manolin of the lions he sees. This also implies in Hemingway’s belief that age impairs, but does not extinguish one’s ability to be participants in their own lives. After going through such a struggle, Santiago realizes that all of his glories were in his youth, and strongly relates the power that the lions in his dreams have to his youth. It symbolizes his freedom in his youth as a link to his past but also his ultimate goal before he dies.

The lions on the beach represent a place where he wants to escape, and explore once more. Dreaming about the lions each night provides Santiago with a link to his younger days, as well as the strength and idealism that are associated with youth. At the beginning of the book, which wrote: “He no longer dreamed of storms, nor of women, nor of great occurrences, nor of great fish, nor fights, nor contests of strength, nor of his wife. He only dreamed of places now and of the lions on the beach. ”(19) Corresponsively, the last part of the book wrote: “The old man was dreaming about the lions. (20) This can also tell that besides youth, virility, and power, the lions on the beach can also be optimistically explained into the promise of a better future. 3. The interiors of the book 13/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” 3. 1 Respect Hemingway spends a great deal of time drawing connections between Santiago and his natural environment: the fish, birds, and stars are all his brothers or friends.

Also, apparently contradictory elements are repeatedly shown as aspects of one unified whole: the sea is kind and cruel, feminine and masculine; the Portuguese man of war is beautiful but deadly; the mako shark is noble but cruel. “Fish,” he said, I love you and respect you very much. But I will kill you dead before this day ends. (21) “I wish I could feed the fish, he thought. He is my brother. But I must kill him and keep strong to do it. ” (22) You can tell that as a fisherman, Santiago has to, and even must kill the fish for his own living, but he still maintains a respectful heart to his greatest and noble opponent. There is no one worthy of eating him from the manner of his great dignity. ”(23) The fish’s perseverance is what he really appreciates. Besides, the fish’s intelligence impresses Santiago very much: “I wish I were the fish, he thought, with everything he has against only my will and my intelligence. ”(24) Santiago not only respects this fish but also looks up to the power of the Mother Nature. This is a spirit that a man who obtains much from the sea should remain as a repay. 14/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” . 2 Heroism Victory over crushing hardship is the heart of heroism, and in order for Santiago the fisherman to be a heroic symbol for humankind, his trials must be monumental. Victory, though, is never final, as Santiago’s successful slaying of the marlin shows. “Hemingway vision of heroism is Sisyphean, requiring continuous labor for quintessentially ephemeral ends. ”(25) What the hero does is to face adversity with dignity and grace. What we achieve or fail at externally is not as significant to heroism as the comporting ourselves with inner nobility. As Santiago says, “But man is not made for defeat,” he said. A man can be destroyed but not defeated. ”(26) 3. 3 Manhood Hemingway’s ideal of manhood is nearly inseparable from the ideal of heroism. Being a man is to behave with honor and dignity: not surrender to suffering, accept one’s duty without complaints, and most importantly, displays a maximum of self-control. The representation of femininity, the sea, is characterized by its caprice and lack of self-control. “If she did wild or wicked things it was because she could not help them. ” The representation of masculinity, the marlin, is described as great, 15/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. dffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” beautiful, calm, and noble. Santiago steels him against his pain by telling himself, “Suffer like a man. Or a fish,” referring to the marlin. In Hemingway’s ethical universe, Santiago shows us not only how to live life heroically but in a way graceful a man. 3. 4 Pride Hemingway’s treatment of pride in the novella is contradictory. “Perhaps I should not have been a fisherman, he thought. But that was the thing that I was born for. ”(27) “You were born to be a fisherman as the fish was born to be a fish. (28) He identify himself with the identity as a fisherman, he felt pride of his identity. A heroic man like Santiago should have pride in his actions, and as Santiago shows us, “He was too simple to wonder when he had attained humility. But he knew he had attained it and he knew it was not disgraceful and it carried no loss of true pride. ” (29). It is apparent that it is Santiago’s pride which presses him to travel dangerously far out into the sea. Though he loved the marlin and called him brother, Santiago admits that he’s killing it for pride:” You did not kill the fish only to keep alive and to sell for food.

You killed him for pride and because you are a fisherman. You loved him when he was alive and you love him after. ”(30) 16/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” His blood stirred by battle with such a noble and worthy opponent. Some have interpreted the loss of the marlin as the price Santiago had to pay for his pride in traveling out so far in search of such a catch. “I could not fail myself and die on a fish like this,” he said. 31) Contrarily, one could argue that this pride was beneficial as it allowed Santiago an edifying challenge worthy of his heroism. In the end, Hemingway suggests that pride is a positive trait even if it draws one unnecessarily into the situation. 3. 5 Success Hemingway draws a distinction between two different types of success: one is the outer, material success and the other is the inner, spiritual success. While Santiago obviously lacks the former one, the import of this lack is eclipsed by his possession of the later one. One way to describe Santiago’s story is as a victory of indefatigable spirit over exhaustible material resources.

The characteristics of such a spirit are those of heroism and manhood. “Half fish. Fish that you were. I’m sorry that I went too far out. I ruined us both. But we have killed many sharks, you and I, and ruined many others. How many did you ever kill, old fish? You don’t have that spear on your head for nothing. ”(32) Santiago can end the novella undefeated after steadily losing his 17/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” ard-earned, most valuable possession is a proof to the privileging of the inner success over the outer success. 3. 6 Worthiness Being heroic and manly are not merely qualities of character which one possesses or one does not. One must constantly demonstrate one’s heroism and manliness through actions conducted with dignity. Santiago is obsessed with proving his worthiness to those around him. He had to prove himself to the boy: “The thousand times he had proved it mean nothing. Now he was proving it again. Each time was a new time and he never thought about the past when he was doing it. “(33) And he had to prove himself to the arlin: “I’ll kill him though, in all his greatness and glory. Although it is unjust, I will show him what a man can do and what a man endures. “(34) A heroic and manly life is not one of inner peace and self-sufficiency; it requires constant demonstration of one’s worthiness through noble action. III. Conclusion 18/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” Without any friend nor any company, all Santiago has is a skiff with patched sail, the ocean, and a big marlin fish far out in the ocean.

God seems not to take any pity on this old fisherman, his life was doomed to be dogged by bad luck. The most absorbing part of the novella is the struggle with the big fish. At first fighting with the fish, Santiago’s hand got cramped. It is without doubt to add salt into injury. “I hate cramp, he thought. It is treachery of one’s own body. It is humiliating before others to have a diarrhea from ptomaine poisoning or to vomit from it. But a cramp, he thought of it as a calambre, humiliates oneself especially when one is alone. ”(35) He missed his only pal, the little boy, while he suffered with cramp.

At last he beat his physical pain, and mocked the fish: “How do you feel, fish? ” he asked aloud. “I feel good and my left hand is better and I have food for a night and a day. Pull the boat, fish. ” (36) Santiago showed much perseverance as a real warrior. Though Santiago suffered from physical pain, it is still a harsh fight. “You are killing me, fish, the old man thought. But you have a right to. Never have I seen a greater, or more beautiful, or a calmer or more noble thing than you, brother. Come on and kill me. I do not care who kills who. ”(37) He told the fish with an undefeated spirit. Santiago is so indomitable a man hat wouldn’t easily give up and said:” A man can be destroyed but not defeated. ” “And pain does not matter to a man. ”(38) It tells 19/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” us that the physical body can be tortured but the inner mind is inviolability. This is an essence that most of us don’t have. Another wise saying by Santiago is: “But, he thought, I keep them with my precision. Only I have no luck anymore. But who knows? Maybe today. Every day is a new day. It is better to be lucky.

But I would rather be exact. Then when luck comes you are ready. ”(39) The bravery that Hemingway wants to convey is wise and well-prepared. Success is based on well-prepared and surefooted process. Though Santiago once gets through a low tide, but whenever a chance approaches, he grabs tight onto it and never let go easily. “Fight them,” he said. “I’ll fight them until I die. ”(40)We really learned a lot from Santiago with his undefeated and rigid mind, his perseverance and heroic actions. Though The Old Man and the Sea is a story, but the implications it held behind the story is much bigger than we could imagine.

Why it becomes a classic literature and so fascinating to people is because it writes about the simple life of an old man struggling on the sea. It also writes about how the old man accepts his miserable life with pleasure, and loves his fate deeply until the last minute. Never give up in anything easily because things might get to a turning point just the next second. The 20/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” process is often more important than the results.

Despite of the fact that it were only the bones that Santiago got, but the process in fighting with the fish will be engraved on his bones and heart. An old saying goes:” Fish or cut bait. ” It tells us the eternity that one should follow one’s belief, advance bravely and never give up easily so that one can approach success. Ostensibly, people pursue for victory and success, but this isn’t the final destination of life. And what’s victory? What is the meaning of the achievable victory? What Santiago really wants to pursue, is to lose in solitary. It’s the only proof to life of Santiago’s struggling life.

As a result, when encountered any difficulties, we can hold onto the philosophy of Santiago that: “A man can be destroyed but not defeated. ” IV. Reference 1. Ernest, Hemingway. 1998. The Old Man and the Sea. ISBN 957-606-285-3, 1 2. http://www. lostgeneration. com/childhood. htm The Hemingway Resource Center: Ernest Hemingway Biography 3. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Lost_Generation Wikipedia: Lost Generation 4. http://nobelprize. org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1954/ The Nobel Prize in Literature 1954 21/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com

A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” 5. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Old_Man_and_the_Sea#Literary_significance_and_crit icism Wikipedia: Literary significance and criticism 6. Joseph Waldmeir (1957). “Confiteor Hominem: Ernest Hemingway’s Religion of Man”. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters XLII: 349–356. 7. Robert P. Weeks (1962). “Fakery in The Old Man and the Sea”. College English XXIV: 188–192. 8. Ernest, Hemingway. 1998. The Old Man and the Sea. ISBN 957-606-285-3, 94 9. Ibid, 94 10. http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/world/americas/1759143. stm 11.

Ernest, Hemingway. 1998. The Old Man and the Sea. ISBN 957-606-285-3, 62 12. Ibid, 46 13. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Old_Man_and_the_Sea Wikipedia: Symbolism of character 14. Ernest, Hemingway. 1998. The Old Man and the Sea. ISBN 957-606-285-3, 47 15. http://www. cliffsnotes. com/WileyCDA/LitNote/id-102,pageNum-33. html Cliffs Notes: Character Analyses, Marlin 16. http://www. gradesaver. com/classicnotes/titles/oldman/charlist. html Grade Saver: Character List 22/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old Man and the Sea” 17. http://www. aseballhaaoffame. org/hofers_and_honorees/hofer_bios/dimaggio_joe. htm 18. Ernest, Hemingway. 1998. The Old Man and the Sea. ISBN 957-606-285-3, 12 19. Ibid, 14 20. Ibid, 98 21. Ibid, 38 22. Ibid, 43 23. Ibid, 56 24. Ibid, 47 25. http://www. gradesaver. com/classicnotes/titles/oldman/themes. html Grade Saver: Major Themes 26. Ernest, Hemingway. 1998. The Old Man and the Sea. ISBN 957-606-285-3, 79 27. Ibid, 35 28. Ibid, 81 29. Ibid, 4 30. Ibid, 81 31. Ibid, 66 32. Ibid, 89 33. Ibid, 48 23/24 PDF created with pdfFactory trial version www. pdffactory. com A Man Can Be Destroyed But Not Defeated –The Struggle of Life in “The Old

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